Friday, July 18, 2008

Indian History --- KALIBANGAN


Kalibangan is located on the left bank of the Ghaggar ( Ancient Saraswati) river. About 5 kms. from Pilibanga Railway Station. It was explored by Shri A. GHOSH, Ex. Director General, Archaeological Survey of India. On 15th Aug. 1947 when India got Independence it was deprived of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro the two provincial capitals of the Harappan Empire, the earliest known civilization of the Indian sub-continent and it was given to Pakistan. It did not deterred the Indian Archaeologist. On the contrary during the last 33 years the Indian map is dotted with number of Harappan sites and Kalibangan is one of them.


Like Harappa and Mohenjo-daro it consists of two mounds one smaller and lower on the western side (KLB1). known as citadel, rising to a height of 9 Meters and the other higher and bigger known as lower city (KLB2) on the eastern side rising to a height of 12 Meters. They cover the area of quarter square kilometer. The site was excavated from the year 1960-61 to 1968-69, for 9 successive excavation sessions.

During excavation a Harappan Cemetery about 300 M. west south-west of the Citadel mound on the present day flood plain of the river was located. In which a good no. of graves (perhaps 34) were (i) Extended inhumation and (ii) pot burial. In the extended position with the head towards the north. The funerary furnishings in the shape of pots were placed near the region. Evidence of trepanning was also noticed. (ii) In the pit burial the pit was oval or circular in plan and contained besides urn, other pots which were of then found clustered round the former and varied in number. No skeleton material was found.

Present Position:

The undersigned visited the site 12th Aug. 1980 as per the instructions of the Director, Archaeology & Museums, Rajasthan, Jaipur and went round the site see its present position.

At the mound KLB2, the lower city (Bigger and higher mound) the successive rains (from 1969 to 1980) seems to have caused havoc as the bricks (Used by the walls of the houses and their alignments are not clearly visible. The successive outer walls of the houses on the arterial streets does not give the impressive look. It may be due to the fact the unbaked bricks and the other filled in earth and earth of successive layers does not have much difference and hence wall wet in rainy season was not easily distinguished. The recent rain gullied in the excavated area has given a bad shape to the excavated walls etc.. The city fortification wall seems to have been reburied for preservation and hence not visible.

At the mound KLB1, the Citadel, the fortification wall seems to have been reburied/covered for preservation and hence not visible. At places the excavated remains including house walls and fortifications are preserved with the help of black polythene plastic sheets covered with the earth which was excavated form the area during the excavation (In the process it seems that the thick polythene/plastic sheets are spread and then the loose earth, excavated one is spread in them in good thickness to protect them from rain water, human and animal agencies). The baked brick stairs pathway leading from the northern half of the Citadel to the southern half of the citadel is in bad state of preservation as the mud brought in with the dust-storm and rain water has deposited itself on the path-way and hence it is unable to give its clear picture.

This is the present state of position of well excavated Harappan site, KALIBANGAN, looking over the ancient Saraswati Valley as said to be the third provincial capital of the Great Harappan Empire, so far known as the earliest Civilization of the Indian sub-continent, bearing the excavated evidence of perhaps the earliest ploughed field in the world, the first fortified city of India and the first most systematically & scientifically excavated city of Harapan Empire in Indian sub-continent. Today an enthusiastic man may go and come back after covering a hazardous way to have a blank impression on his mind. At least some descriptive board (at least bi-lingual) with brief description of corrugated iron sheets or enameled ones may be put up to give some information to the visiting public about the site and its history.

Friday, June 06, 2008

Jagadish Chandra Bose

Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS was a Indian polymath: a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, and science fiction writer. He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made extremely significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. He is considered the father of radio science,[3] and is also considered the father of Bengali science fiction. He was the first from the Indian subcontinent to get a US patent, in 1904.

Born in Bengal province of British India, Bose graduated from St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. He then went to the University of London to study medicine, but couldn't complete his studies due to health problems. He returned to India and joined the Presidency College as a Professor of Physics. There, despite racial discrimination and a lack of funding and equipment, Bose carried on his scientific research. He made remarkable progress in his research of remote wireless signaling and was the first to use semiconductor junctions to detect radio signals. However, instead of trying to gain commercial benefit from this invention Bose made his inventions public in order to allow others to develop on his research. Subsequently, he made some pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention crescograph to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues. Although Bose filed for patent for one of his inventions due to peer pressure, his reluctance to any form of patenting was well known. Now, some 70 years of after his death, he is being recognised for many of his contributions to modern science.